Bulletin 249 (1 of 2): Job hazard analysis

Bulletin 249 (1 of 2): Job hazard analysis

Under The Workplace Safety and Health Act, employers must provide and maintain a workplace, necessary equipment, systems and tools that are safe and without risks to health, so far as is reasonably practicable. The identification of hazards and the development of safe work procedures are the responsibility of the employer in consultation with the workers at the workplace and/or their representatives. 

This bulletin is the first in a two-part series that shows how to (1) conduct a job hazard analysis and (2) develop and implement safe work procedures.
 

Conducting a job hazard analysis 

A job hazard analysis (JHA) is a method to perform an assessment of a job task by breaking the job task into steps to help identify hazards and measures to control workers’ exposure to them.

To conduct a JHA: 

  1. Break the job task into its basic steps; 
  2. Identify and consider workers’ exposure to the hazards at each of the steps; and 
  3. Determine controls for the hazards that you have identified which will reduce or eliminate the risk. 
The following table is intended to illustrate some of the factors that should be considered when conducting a JHA. See below for a sample of what an actual JHA could look like.

Job Hazard Analysis Form - Description


​​​Job Steps​​​

​Hazards

Controls​

Break the job task into steps.
 
Identify and analyze how the work is performed at each step. This is essential for an accurate assessment. 

Ensure you write down everything the worker does. Later, you can go back and combine things or eliminate unnecessary detail.
 
Always identify if the tool or equipment is appropriate before beginning a job task. 

Workers may take an active role in this process. 

Identify the hazards present in each of the job steps. 

Material hazards 

  • Electrical 
  • Sharp points or edges 
  • Pinch points 
  • Material falling 
  • Surfaces causing falls 
  • Working at heights 
  • Moving machinery 
  • Fire and explosion 

Musculoskeletal hazards 

  • Awkward or sustained posture 
  • Forceful exertion 
  • Repetitive motions 
  • Vibration 
  • Skin compression 

​Hygiene/health hazards 

  • Chemical hazards (acids, solvents, fumes) 
  • Biological hazards (bacteria, viruses) 
  • Physical agents (heat, noise, radiation) 
  • Psycho-social hazards (harassment, time constraints, violence)

​What controls can be implemented for each of the hazards that you identified?
 

At the source 

  • Elimination 
  • Substitution 
  • Redesign 
  • Isolation 
  • Automation 

Along the path 

  • Relocation 
  • Barriers 
  • Absorption 
  • Dilution 

At the worker’s level 

  • Administrative controls 
  • Orientation, training and supervision 
  • Emergency planning 
  • Housekeeping 
  • Hygiene practices 
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) 




Example: Job Hazard Analysis (Sample Only)


Company Name: ABC Carpentry
Date: April 16, 2015

​Job name: 

Woodworking band saw 

​Facility: 

Shop 1 

​Conducted by: 

J. Carpenter 

​Job Steps

​Hazards

​Control Measure

​1. Place material in front of blade on work platform 
  • ​Debris on platform 
  • Accidentally start saw while preparing 
  • Awkward posture - lifting and twisting (material handling) 
  • Forceful exertion lifting heavier pieces of wood 
  1. ​Inspect to ensure clean work platform and equipment 
  2. Electrically isolate before starting anything else 
  3. Describe safe lifting/materials handling (also cover in lift/materials handling training) 
  4. Identify proper hand positioning and safe zones 
  5. Locate and train on use of emergency shut off button/ procedures 
​2. Turn on saw 
  • ​Electrical shock 
  • Exposed blade 
  • Noise 
  • Blade break 


  1. ​Inspect electrical cord and switch 
  2. Adjust guard to 1/8” above wood to be cut 
  3. Hearing protection 
  4. Inspect blade and wear eye protection 
​3. Push piece of material through blade 
  • ​Knots/nails in wood – kickback 
  • Amputation or cuts – hands contact with blade 
  • Saw dust in eyes 
  • Saw dust inhaled (toxic – hardwoods) 
  • Awkward postures due to leaning and reaching 
  1. ​Inspect wood and push through slowly 
  2. Ensure safe zone is identified and jigs or push sticks are used if hand would leave the safe zone 
  3. Eye protection 
  4. Engage dust collection system and ensure it is included in exposure/maintenance program 
  5. Position body to avoid exposure to awkward and sustained postures (also cover in body posture training) 
​4. Remove material from platform 
  • ​Exposed blade – cuts 
  • Material fall and strike feet 
  1. ​Use proper hand positioning, shut off saw, use a push stick to remove pieces close to blade 
  2. Wear safety footwear 
​5. Clean off saw
  • ​Saw dust in eyes 
  • Saw dust inhaled 
  1. ​Eye protection 
  2. Disposable respirator (N95) 

Once you have determined the steps, hazards, and controls for the task, summarize the information and create a safe work procedure. 


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